Level II scour analysis for Bridge 8 (WELLTH00020008) on Town Highway 2, crossing Wells Brook, Wells, Vermont

Open-File Report 97-770

Prepared in cooperation with Vermont Agency of Transportation and Federal Highway Administration



This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure WELLTH00020008 on Town Highway 2 crossing the Wells Brook, Wells, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D. The site is in the Taconic section of the New England physiographic province in southwestern Vermont. The 14.4-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover on the right overbanks is predominantly suburban while the immediate banks are vegetated with trees and brush. The left bank upstream and downstream is predominantly pasture. In the study area, the Wells Brook has an incised, straight channel with a slope of approximately 0.005 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 51 ft and an average bank height of 7 ft. The channel bed material ranges from gravel to boulder with a median grain size (D50) of 48.6 mm (0.159 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on September 19, 1995, indicated that the reach was stable. The Town Highway 2 crossing of the Wells Brook is a 35-ft-long, two-lane bridge consisting of one 32-foot concrete span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, March 22, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 31.7 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls. The channel is skewed approximately 10 degrees to the opening while the opening-skew-toroadway is 5 degrees. A scour hole 1.5 ft deeper than the mean thalweg depth was observed along the left abutment during the Level I assessment. The only scour protection measure at the site was type-2 stone fill (less than 36 inches diameter) along the left bank upstream, and type-5 (placed stone wall) at the upstream end of the upstream left wingwall, at the downstream end of the downstream left wingwall, and along the downstream left bank. Additional details describing conditions at the site are included in the Level II Summary and Appendices D and E. Scour depths and recommended rock rip-rap sizes were computed using the general guidelines described in Hydraulic Engineering Circular 18 (Richardson and others, 1995) for the 100- and 500-year discharges. In addition, the incipient roadway-overtopping discharge is determined and analyzed as another potential worst-case scour scenario. Total scour at a highway crossing is comprised of three components: 1) long-term streambed degradation; 2) contraction scour (due to accelerated flow caused by a reduction in flow area at a bridge) and; 3) local scour (caused by accelerated flow around piers and abutments). Total scour is the sum of the three components. Equations are available to compute depths for contraction and local scour and a summary of the results of these computations follows. Contraction scour for all modelled flows ranged from 0.0 to 0.8 ft. The worst-case contraction scour occurred at the incipient roadway-overtopping discharge, which was less than the 100-year discharge. Abutment scour ranged from 5.6 to 10.0 ft at the left abutment and from 3.1 to 4.2 ft at the right abutment. The worst-case abutment scour occurred at the incipient roadway-overtopping discharge at the left abutment. Additional information on scour depths and depths to armoring are included in the section titled “Scour Results”. Scoured-streambed elevations, based on the calculated scour depths, are presented in tables 1 and 2. A cross-section of the scour computed at the bridge is presented in figure 8. Scour depths were calculated assuming an infinite depth of erosive material and a homogeneous particle-size distribution. Usually, computed scour depths are evaluated in combination with other information including (but not limited to) historical performance during flood events, the geomorphic stability assessment, existing scour protection measures, and the results of the hydraulic analyses. Therefore, scour depths adopted by VTAOT may differ from the computed values documented herein.

Study Area

Additional publication details

Publication type:
Publication Subtype:
USGS Numbered Series
Level II scour analysis for Bridge 8 (WELLTH00020008) on Town Highway 2, crossing Wells Brook, Wells, Vermont
Series title:
Open-File Report
Series number:
Year Published:
U.S. Geological Survey
Publisher location:
Pembroke, NH
iv, 51 p.
United States
Other Geospatial:
Wells Brook