Level II scour analysis for Bridge 30, (HUNTTH00220030), on Town Highway 22, crossing Brush Brook, Huntington, Vermont

Open-File Report 97-816

Prepared in cooperation with Vermont Agency of Transportation and Federal Highway Administration



This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure HUNTTH00220030 on Town Highway 22 crossing Brush Brook, Huntington, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D. The site is in the Green Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in central Vermont. The 4.98-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is forest. In the study area, Brush Brook has an incised, straight channel with a slope of approximately 0.06 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 49 ft and an average bank height of 9 ft. The channel bed material ranges from sand to boulders with a median grain size (D50) of 206 mm (0.675 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on June 25, 1996, indicated that the reach was stable. The Town Highway 22 crossing of Brush Brook is a 30-ft-long, one-lane bridge consisting of one 27-foot steel-beam span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, December 12, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 25.6 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments. The channel is skewed approximately zero degrees to the opening while the computed opening-skew-toroadway is 15 degrees. A scour hole 1 ft deeper than the mean thalweg was observed along the left abutment during the Level I assessment. The left abutment footing is exposed and undermined. The only scour countermeasure noted at the site was type-2 stone fill (less than 36 inches diameter) along the downstream left road approach embankment. Additional details describing conditions at the site are included in the Level II Summary and Appendices D and E. Scour depths and recommended rock rip-rap sizes were computed using the general guidelines described in Hydraulic Engineering Circular 18 (Richardson and others, 1995). Total scour at a highway crossing is comprised of three components: 1) long-term streambed degradation; 2) contraction scour (due to accelerated flow caused by a reduction in flow area at a bridge) and; 3) local scour (caused by accelerated flow around piers and abutments). Total scour is the sum of the three components. Equations are available to compute depths for contraction and local scour and a summary of the results of these computations follows. Contraction scour for all modelled flows was zero. Abutment scour ranged from 7.8 to 10.1 ft. The worst-case abutment scour occurred at the 500-year discharge. Additional information on scour depths and depths to armoring are included in the section titled “Scour Results”. Scoured-streambed elevations, based on the calculated scour depths, are presented in tables 1 and 2. A cross-section of the scour computed at the bridge is presented in figure 8. Scour depths were calculated assuming an infinite depth of erosive material and a homogeneous particle-size distribution. It is generally accepted that the Froehlich equation (abutment scour) gives “excessively conservative estimates of scour depths” (Richardson and others, 1995, p. 47). Usually, computed scour depths are evaluated in combination with other information including (but not limited to) historical performance during flood events, the geomorphic stability assessment, existing scour protection measures, and the results of the hydraulic analyses. Therefore, scour depths adopted by VTAOT may differ from the computed values documented herein.

Study Area

Additional publication details

Publication type:
Publication Subtype:
USGS Numbered Series
Level II scour analysis for Bridge 30, (HUNTTH00220030), on Town Highway 22, crossing Brush Brook, Huntington, Vermont
Series title:
Open-File Report
Series number:
Year Published:
U.S. Geological Survey
Publisher location:
Pembroke, NH
iv, 47 p.
United States
Other Geospatial:
Brush Brook