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Effects of urbanization on streamflow and sediment transport in the Rock Creek and Anacostia River basins, Montgomery County, Maryland, 1962-74

Professional Paper 1003

By:
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Abstract

Land use, precipitation, streamflow, and sediment discharge data were collected from nine small drainage basins in Montgomery County, Maryland, to evaluate runoff and sediment response to sediment-control practices in areas undergoing urban development. Drainage basins ranged in size from 0.35 to 21.1 sq mi and land use ranged from rural to 60 percent urban. Urbanization did not affect low and medium flows, but it did result in increased storm runoff and peak flows. Suspended sediment transported from one of the basins that underwent urban development, the 21.1 sq mi Anacostia River basin, averaged 15 ,400 tons/yr between 1962 and 1974. Bedload was estimated as 5 to 11 percent of the total load. Cropland, urban land, and construction sites were the major sources of sediment. Average annual sediment yields ranged from 065 to 4.3 tons/acre for cropland, 3.7 tons/acre for urban land, and 7 to 100 tons/acre for urban construction sites. The magnitude of the yields from construction sites was significantly affected by (1) the slope of the sites, (2) the proximity of stream channels, (3) buffer zones of natural vegetation, and (4) sediment-control measures. Sediment controls, particularly those enforced under a 1971 sediment-control ordinance, apparently decreased construction-site sediment yields by 60 to 80 percent. (Woodard-USGS)

Additional Publication Details

Publication type:
Report
Publication Subtype:
USGS Numbered Series
Title:
Effects of urbanization on streamflow and sediment transport in the Rock Creek and Anacostia River basins, Montgomery County, Maryland, 1962-74
Series title:
Professional Paper
Series number:
1003
Edition:
-
Year Published:
1978
Language:
ENGLISH
Publisher:
U.S. Govt. Print. Off.,
Description:
71 p.