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The stratigraphy of the Cretaceous section in a continuously cored stratigraphic test hole, USGS-Clubhouse Crossroads #1, is reviewed and amended herein. Located in southern Dorchester County, S.C., the Clubhouse Crossroads #1 core is one of the principal stratigraphic reference sections in the southern Atlantic Coastal Plain.
Traditional and revised systems of stratigraphic nomenclature for the outcropping Cretaceous formations of the Carolinas are reviewed for their applicability in defining subsurface Cretaceous formations at Clubhouse Crossroads. The revised nomenclature, exemplified by the formations proposed by J. P. Owens in 1989 and by N. F. Sohl and Owens in 1991, is preferred for this purpose over the traditional nomenclature established by D.J.P. Swift and S.D. Heron, Jr., in 1969. The revised nomenclature is selected because of its greater emphasis on the historical succession of entire sedimentary systems (timeparallel formations), in contrast to the emphasis placed on the physical continuity of individual facies through time (time-transgressive formations) in the traditional nomenclature. Physical relationships between the two types of formations are discerned by using K.E. Caster's 1934 facies model, in which the time-transgressive units of the traditional model are his magnafacies and the time-parallel units of the revised model are sets of his laterally contiguous parvafacies.
In 1977, G.S. Gohn and others and J.E. Hazel and others provisionally delineated Cretaceous formations in the Clubhouse Crossroads #1 core by using Swift and Heron's traditional units. The publication of additional lithologic and paleontologic data since 1977 for Cretaceous units in the core and for Cretaceous units throughout the Carolinas provides a basis for reviewing and amending the original definitions of the Cretaceous formations at Clubhouse Crossroads. Ages assigned to the Cretaceous units at Clubhouse Crossroads by Hazel and others are also reviewed.
The boundaries and definitions of the Cape Fear, Middendorf, Black Creek, and Peedee Formations originally used for the core by Gohn and others and Hazel and others are substantially changed herein. In addition, the Black Creek Formation of the core is raised in rank to become the Black Creek Group, which consists of two newly defined formations (Cane Acre and Coachman) and two newly recognized formations previously described in outcrop (Bladen and Donoho Creek). Four subsurface formations that are not known in outcrop are newly defined in the core (Beech Hill, Clubhouse, Shepherd Grove, and Caddin). The revised stratigraphy of the Cretaceous section in the Clubhouse Crossroads #1 core, from base to top, is as follows: Beech Hill Formation (Cenomanian?), Clubhouse Formation (late Cenomanian? and Turonian), Cape Fear Formation (late Turonian? to early Santonian), Middendorf Formation (middle Santonian), Shepherd Grove Formation (late Santonian and early Campanian), Caddin Formation (early Campanian), Cane Acre Formation (middle Campanian, Black Creek Group), Coachman Formation (middle to late Campanian, Black Creek Group), Bladen Formation (late Campanian, Black Creek Group), Donoho Creek Formation (early Maastrichtian, Black Creek Group), and Peedee Formation (late early Maastrichtian to middle or late Maastrichtian).
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Revised nomenclature, definitions, and correlations for the Cretaceous formations in USGS-Clubhouse Crossroads #1, Dorchester County, South Carolina