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A four-dimensional petroleum systems model for the San Joaquin Basin Province, California: Chapter 12 in Petroleum systems and geologic assessment of oil and gas in the San Joaquin Basin Province, California

Professional Paper 1713-12

This report is Chapter 12 in Petroleum systems and geologic assessment of oil and gas in the San Joaquin Basin Province, California. Please see Professional Paper 1713 for other chapters.
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Abstract

A calibrated numerical model depicts the geometry and three-dimensional (3-D) evolution of petroleum systems through time (4-D) in a 249 x 309 km (155 x 192 mi) area covering all of the San Joaquin Basin Province of California. Model input includes 3-D structural and stratigraphic data for key horizons and maps of unit thickness, lithology, paleobathymetry, heat flow, original total organic carbon, and original Rock-Eval pyrolysis hydrogen index for each source rock. The four principal petroleum source rocks in the basin are the Miocene Antelope shale of Graham and Williams (1985; hereafter referred to as Antelope shale), the Eocene Kreyenhagen Formation, the Eocene Tumey formation of Atwill (1935; hereafter referred to as Tumey formation), and the Cretaceous to Paleocene Moreno Formation. Due to limited Rock-Eval/total organic carbon data, the Tumey formation was modeled using constant values of original total organic carbon and original hydrogen index. Maps of original total organic carbon and original hydrogen index were created for the other three source rocks. The Antelope shale was modeled using Type IIS kerogen kinetics, whereas Type II kinetics were used for the other source rocks. Four-dimensional modeling and geologic field evidence indicate that maximum burial of the three principal Cenozoic source rocks occurred in latest Pliocene to Holocene time. For example, a 1-D extraction of burial history from the 4-D model in the Tejon depocenter shows that the bottom of the Antelope shale source rock began expulsion (10 percent transformation ratio) about 4.6 Ma and reached peak expulsion (50 percent transformation ratio) about 3.6 Ma. Except on the west flank of the basin, where steep dips in outcrop and seismic data indicate substantial uplift, little or no section has been eroded. Most petroleum migration occurred during late Cenozoic time in distinct stratigraphic intervals along east-west pathways from pods of active petroleum source rock in the Tejon and Buttonwillow depocenters to updip sandstone reservoirs. Satisfactory runs of the model required about 18 hours of computation time for each simulation using parallel processing on a Linux-based cluster.

Geospatial Extents

Additional Publication Details

Publication type:
Report
Publication Subtype:
USGS Numbered Series
Title:
A four-dimensional petroleum systems model for the San Joaquin Basin Province, California: Chapter 12 in Petroleum systems and geologic assessment of oil and gas in the San Joaquin Basin Province, California
Series title:
Professional Paper
Series number:
1713-12
Year Published:
2008
Language:
English
Publisher:
U.S. Geological Survey
Publisher location:
Reston, VA
Contributing office(s):
Western Energy Resources
Description:
Chapter 12: 35 p.
Larger Work Type:
Report
Larger Work Subtype:
USGS Numbered Series
Country:
United States
State:
California
Other Geospatial:
San Joaquin Basin
Additional Online Files(Y/N):
Y