In the first half of the 20th century, engineering geology and geotechnical engineering were in their infancy, and dams were often built where landslides provided valley constrictions, often without expert site investigation. Only the most important projects were subjected to careful geologic examination. Thus, dams were often built without complete understanding of the possible geotechnical problems occurring in foundations or abutments. Most of these dams still exist, although many have undergone costly repairs because of stability or leakage problems. Today, however, every effort is made in the selection of damsites, including those sited on landslides, to provide foundations and abutments that are generally impervious and capable of withstanding the stresses imposed by the proposed dam and reservoir, and possible landslides.
By means of a literature search, technical interviews, and field inventory, I have located 254 large (at least 10 m high) dams worldwide that directly interact with landslides; that is, they have been built on pre-existing landslides or have been subjected to landslide activity during or after construction. A table (Appendix table A) summarizes dam characteristics, landslide conditions, and remedial measures at each of the dams. Of the 254 dams, 164 are earthfill, 23 are rockfill, and 18 are earthfill-rockfill; these are flexible dam types that generally perform better on the possibly unstable foundations provided by landslides than do more rigid concrete dams.
Any pre-existing landslides that might impinge on the foundation or abutments of a dam should be carefully investigated. If a landslide is recognized in a dam foundation or abutment, the landslide deposits commonly are avoided in siting the dam or are removed during stripping of the dam foundation and abutment contacts. Contrarily, it has often been found to be technically feasible and economically desirable to site and construct dams on known landslides or on the remnants of these features. In these cases, proven preventive and remedial measures have been used to ensure the stability of the foundations and abutments, and to reduce seepage to acceptable levels.
Additional Publication Details
USGS Numbered Series
Interaction of Dams and Landslides--Case Studies and Mitigation