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Analysis of GPS-measured deformation associated with the 2004-2006 dome-building eruption of Mount St. Helens, Washington: Chapter 15 in A volcano rekindled: the renewed eruption of Mount St. Helens, 2004-2006

Professional Paper 1750-15

This report is Chapter 15 in A volcano rekindled: the renewed eruption of Mount St. Helens, 2004-2006. For more information, see: Professional Paper 1750
By:
, , ,
Edited by:
David R. Sherrod, William E. Scott, Peter H. Stauffer

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Abstract

Detecting far-field deformation at Mount St. Helens since the crater-forming landslide and blast in 1980 has been difficult despite frequent volcanic activity and improved monitoring techniques. Between 1982 and 1991, the systematic extension of line lengths in a regional GPS trilateration network is consistent with recharge of a deep magma chamber during that interval. The rate of extension, however, averages only 3 mm/yr, and some of this apparent deformation may result from systematic scale error in the electronic distance measurements. Subsequent GPS surveys and data from a continuous GPS station, located 9 km north of Mount St. Helens and operating since 1997, show no significant volcanic deformation until the start of unrest on September 23, 2004. The current eruption has been accompanied by subtle but widespread inward and downward movement of GPS monitoring stations, exponentially decreasing with time and totaling as much as 30 mm. The observed deformation is consistent with the predictions of an elastic half-space model of a vertically elongate magma chamber with its center at a depth of around 7 to 8 km and with a total cavity-volume loss of about 16–24×106 m3 . The discrepancy between the estimated cavity-volume loss and the >83×106-m3 volume of the erupted dome can be explained, for the most part, by exsolution of gas in the stored magma and by minor input of new magma during the eruption.

Geospatial Extents

Additional Publication Details

Publication type:
Report
Publication Subtype:
USGS Numbered Series
Title:
Analysis of GPS-measured deformation associated with the 2004-2006 dome-building eruption of Mount St. Helens, Washington: Chapter 15 in A volcano rekindled: the renewed eruption of Mount St. Helens, 2004-2006
Series title:
Professional Paper
Series number:
1750-15
Year Published:
2008
Language:
English
Publisher:
U.S. Geological Survey
Publisher location:
Reston, VA
Contributing office(s):
Volcano Hazards Program
Description:
33 p.
Larger Work Type:
Report
Larger Work Subtype:
USGS Numbered Series
Larger Work Title:
A volcano rekindled: the renewed eruption of Mount St. Helens, 2004-2006 (Professional Paper 1750)
First page:
301
Last page:
333
Number of Pages:
33
Country:
United States
State:
Washington
Other Geospatial:
Mount St. Helens