Augustine Volcano is an active stratovolcano located in southwestern Cook Inlet, about 280 kilometers southwest of Anchorage, Alaska. The volcano produced six significant explosive eruptions between 1812 and 1986. Augustine eruptions typically have an explosive onset followed by dome building. The most recent eruption began on January 11, 2006. We applied the small baseline subset (SBAS) interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) technique to measure ground surface deformation during 1992-2005 with the use of European Remote Sensing Satellites 1 and 2 (ERS-1 and ERS-2) radar imagery. Through a multiple-interferogram approach, atmospheric delay artifacts, which hinder conventional InSAR measurements, are significantly reduced by spatial and temporal filtering. This allows us to retrieve time-series deformation over coherent points at millimeter-scale accuracy. The deformation results from two independent satellite tracks agree with each other, suggesting 2 to 8 cm wholesale uplift of Augustine Volcano from 1992 to 2005. Global Positioning System (GPS) data acquired in September 2004 and October 2005 confirm the SBAS InSAR results. A preliminary model consisting of a contracting source at 2 to 4 km depth and an inflating source at 7 to 12 km depth fits the observed deformation reasonably well. We interpret the deeper source as a long-term magma storage zone and the shallower source as a subsidiary reservoir that was tapped during the 2006 eruption. The shallow source corresponds approximately to the location of the volcano-tectonic earthquakes that preceded and followed the 1976 and 2006 eruptions, respectively.
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USGS Numbered Series
Surface Deformation of Augustine Volcano, 1992-2005, from Multiple-Interferogram Processing Using a Refined Small Baseline Subset (SBAS) Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) Approach