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Thermal loading of natural streams

Professional Paper 991

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Abstract

The impact of thermal loading on the temperature regime of natural streams is investigated by mathematical models, which describe both transport (convection-diffusion) and decay (surface dissipation) of waste heat over 1-hour or shorter time intervals. The models are derived from the principle of conservation of thermal energy for application to one- and two-dimensional spaces. The basic concept in these models is to separate water temperature into two parts, (1) excess temperature due to thermal loading and (2) natural (ambient) temperature. This separation allows excess temperature to be calculated from the models without incoming radiation data. Natural temperature may either be measured in prototypes or calculated from the model. If use is made of the model, however, incoming radiation is required as input data. Comparison of observed and calculated temperatures in seven natural streams shows that the models are capable of predicting transient temperature regimes satisfactorily in most cases. (Woodard-USGS)

Additional Publication Details

Publication type:
Report
Publication Subtype:
USGS Numbered Series
Title:
Thermal loading of natural streams
Series title:
Professional Paper
Series number:
991
Edition:
-
Year Published:
1977
Language:
ENGLISH
Publisher:
U.S. Govt. Print. Off.,
Description:
39 p.