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Pesticides commonly used on cranberries were detected in lakes, lake-bed sediment, and ground water of the Lac du Flambeau Reservation, Wisconsin adjacent to commercial cranberry bogs. Additionally, pesticides not typically used on cranberries were also detected.
In water samples from Little Trout and the Corn Lakes, which are adjacent to commercial cranberry bogs, five targeted pesticides commonly used on cranberries (2,4-D, carbaryl, diazinon, napropamide, and norflurazon) were detected. No targeted pesticides were detected in Ike Walton Lake (the reference lake), which is not adjacent to commercial cranberry bogs. The non-targeted pesticide atrazine (not commonly used on cranberries) was detected in all lakes during all sample periods, with precipitation the likely source. Non-targeted pesticides metolachlor and oryzalin were also detected in samples from Ike Walton and the Corn Lake, but the sources are not apparent. Pesticide concentrations measured in lake samples were far below levels considered lethal to fish.
In samples from the Trout River, which is used as a source of water to maintain lake levels in the Corn Lakes, the only pesticides detected were the non-targeted compounds atrazine and deethyl atrazine, indicating it was not a source of targeted compounds detected in the Corn Lakes. Only two pesticides (chlorpyrifos and metolachlor) were detected in bed-sediment samples collected from the lakes; chlorpyrifos from Little Trout Lake and metolachlor from the Corn Lakes. Four pesticides (the targeted compounds napropamide and norflurazon and the non-targeted compounds atrazine and deethyl atrazine) were detected in ground-water samples from two of four sampled monitor wells. The highest ground-water concentrations (up to 0.14 ?g/L napropamide and 0.56 ?g/L norflurazon) were measured in samples from the monitoring well located directly downgradient from the Corn Lakes and commercial cranberry operations. No pesticides were detected in samples from the reference well located upgradient from the Corn Lakes and cranberry operations. Further study is needed to identify additional pesticides as well as chronic effects on aquatic organisms to determine whether cranberry-related pesticides affect the lake ecosystems of the Lac du Flambeau Reservation.
Additional Publication Details
USGS Numbered Series
Pesticides in Surface Water, Bed Sediment, and Ground Water Adjacent to Commercial Cranberry Bogs, Lac du Flambeau Reservation, Vilas County, Wisconsin