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Occurrence of organic wastewater compounds in drinking water, wastewater effluent, and the Big Sioux River in or near Sioux Falls, South Dakota, 2001-2004

Scientific Investigations Report 2006-5118

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Abstract

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the city of Sioux Falls conducted several rounds of sampling to determine the occurrence of organic wastewater compounds (OWCs) in the city of Sioux Falls drinking water and waste-water effluent, and the Big Sioux River in or near Sioux Falls during August 2001 through May 2004. Water samples were collected during both base-flow and storm-runoff conditions. Water samples were collected at 8 sites, which included 4 sites upstream from the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) discharge, 2 sites downstream from the WWTP discharge, 1 finished drinking-water site, and 1 WWTP effluent (WWE) site. A total of 125 different OWCs were analyzed for in this study using five different analytical methods. Analyses for OWCs were performed at USGS laboratories that are developing and/or refining small-concentration (less than 1 microgram per liter (ug/L)) analytical methods. The OWCs were classified into six compound classes: human pharmaceutical compounds (HPCs); human and veterinary antibiotic compounds (HVACs); major agricultural herbicides (MAHs); household, industrial,and minor agricultural compounds (HIACs); polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs); and sterol compounds (SCs). Some of the compounds in the HPC, MAH, HIAC, and PAH classes are suspected of being endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs). Of the 125 different OWCs analyzed for in this study, 81 OWCs had one or more detections in environmental samples reported by the laboratories, and of those 81 OWCs, 63 had acceptable analytical method performance, were detected at concentrations greater than the study reporting levels, and were included in analyses and discussion related to occurrence of OWCs in drinking water, wastewater effluent, and the Big Sioux River. OWCs in all compound classes were detected in water samples from sampling sites in the Sioux Falls area. For the five sampling periods when samples were collected from the Sioux Falls finished drinking water, only one OWC was detected at a concentration greater than the study reporting level (metolachlor; 0.0040 ug/L). During base-flow conditions, Big Sioux River sites upstream from the WWTP discharge had OWC contributions that primarily were from nonpoint animal or crop agriculture sources or had OWC concentrations that were minimal. The influence of the WWTP discharge on OWCs at downstream river sites during base-flow conditions ranged from minimal influence to substantial influence depending on the sampling period. During runoff conditions, OWCs at sites upstream from the WWTP discharge probably were primarily contributed by nonpoint animal and/or crop agriculture sources and possibly by stormwater runoff from nearby roads. OWCs at sites downstream from the WWTP discharge probably were contributed by sources other than the WWTP effluent discharge, such as stormwater runoff from urban and/or agriculture areas and/or resuspension of OWCs adsorbed to sediment deposited in the Big Sioux River. OWC loads generally were substantially smaller for upstream sites than downstream sites during both base-flow and runoff conditions.discharge had OWC contributions that primarily were from nonpoint animal or crop agriculture sources or had OWC concentrations that were minimal. The influence of the WWTP discharge on OWCs at downstream river sites during base-flow conditions ranged from minimal influence to substantial influence depending on the sampling period. During runoff conditions, OWCs at sites upstream from the WWTP discharge probably were primarily contributed by nonpoint animal and/or crop agriculture sources and possibly by stormwater runoff from nearby roads. OWCs at sites downstream from the WWTP discharge probably were contributed by sources other than the WWTP effluent discharge, such as stormwater runoff from urban and/or agriculture areas and/or resuspension of OWCs adsorbed to sediment deposited in the Big Sioux River. OWC loads generally were substantially smaller for

Additional Publication Details

Publication type:
Report
Publication Subtype:
USGS Numbered Series
Title:
Occurrence of organic wastewater compounds in drinking water, wastewater effluent, and the Big Sioux River in or near Sioux Falls, South Dakota, 2001-2004
Series title:
Scientific Investigations Report
Series number:
2006-5118
Edition:
-
Year Published:
2006
Language:
ENGLISH
Contributing office(s):
South Dakota Water Science Center
Description:
178 p.
Number of Pages:
178
Time Range Start:
2004-01-01T12:00:00
Time Range End:
2004-12-31T12:00:00
Additional Online Files(Y/N):
Y