The Cockfield and lower Wilcox aquifers are sources of water for local use in southern and northeastern Arkansas, where in 1995 more than 51 million gallons per day of water was withdrawn. During January through April 2000, 54 water-level measurements were made in wells completed in the Cockfield aquifer, 13 water-level measurements were made in wells completed in the lower Wilcox aquifer in southern Arkansas, and 43 water-level measurements were made in wells completed in the lower Wilcox aquifer in northeastern Arkansas. The potentiometric surface data reveal spatial trends in both aquifers across the study areas.
The regional direction of ground-water flow of the Cockfield aquifer is generally toward the east and south, away from the outcrop area, except in areas of intense ground-water withdrawals. The configuration of the potentiometric surface indicates that heavy pumpage has probably altered or reversed the natural direction of flow in these areas. A potentiometric low caused by the pumpage near Greenville, Mississippi, extends into Chicot, Desha, and Drew Counties. Water levels in five wells showed average declines between 0.5 and 0.8 foot per year.
The regional direction of ground-water flow in the lower Wilcox aquifers is generally east and south, away from the outcrop, except in areas of intense ground-water withdrawals. Potentiometric depressions, where flow is toward centers of pumping, indicate that heavy pumpage has probably altered or reversed the natural direction of flow. Two potentiometric depressions are centered in the vicinity of Paragould and West Memphis, Arkansas, where ground-water withdrawals probably have altered the natural direction of flow. Long-term hydrographs of seven wells show water-level declines in the lower Wilcox aquifer in northeastern Arkansas. The average water-level decline in two wells was between 0.8 and 1.0 foot per year and in five wells was between 1.2 and 1.8 foot per year.
Additional Publication Details
USGS Numbered Series
Potentiometric surfaces of aquifers in the Cockfield Formation in southeastern Arkansas and the Wilcox Group in southern and northeastern Arkansas, 2000
Water-Resources Investigations Report
U.S. Dept. of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey ;
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