Volatile organic compound concentrations from passive diffusion bag samplers were compared with concentrations from conventional purge (three or more casing volumes) sampling and low-flow purge sampling in side-by-side tests in 17 wells at the Naval Industrial Reserve Ordnance Plant, in Fridley, Minnesota. An initial comparison of 1,2-dichloroethene and trichloroethene concentrations obtained by using passive diffusion bag samplers and the conventional purge method in wells where one passive diffusion bag sampler was deployed showed good agreement at several wells but poor agreement at others. Collection of data from multiple diffusion samplers during the conventional purge sampling and during the low-flow sampling, however, suggests that the volatile organic compound concentrations from the passive diffusion bag samplers accurately reflect the volatile organic compound distribution in the screened interval, whereas the conventional purge and low-flow purge samples reflect mixing during pumping. The data also show that contaminant stratification was present in some wells. In one well, trichloroethene concentrations ranged from 470 to 1,600 micrograms per liter over a vertical distance of approximately 6 feet.
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Field testing of passive diffusion bag samplers for volatile organic compound concentrations in ground water, Naval Industrial Reserve Ordnance Plant, Fridley, Minnesota, November 1999 and May 2000