A new MODFLOW lake package (LAK3) that simulates ground-water/lake interaction was used in simulation of Fish, Mud and Crystal Lakes?three shallow seepage lakes located in northwestern Dane County, Wis. The simulations were done to help determine the cause of increasing lake stages and provide a tool to estimate the effect of pumping water from Fish lake on future lake stages. The ground-water-flow model was developed using a telescopic-mesh refinement of the Dane and southwestern Columbia Counties regional model previously developed by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Wisconsin Geological and Natural History Survey. The parameter estimation model, UCODE, was coupled to the steadystate ground-water model to automate and optimize the calibration procedure. The steady-state model was calibrated to measured ground-water levels, Spring Creek streamflow measured at Lodi, and Fish and Crystal Lake stages. The results of the steady-state model were used as initial conditions in a transient simulation beginning in 1966 and ending in 1998. Recharge based on annual baseflow in Black Earth Creek, runoff based on measured coefficients, and precipitation and evaporation from the lake surfaces, were varied during the transient simulation. Measured Fish Lake stage was matched to simulated stage to calibrate the transient model. Model results suggest that the increase in regional ground-water recharge resulted in increased ground-water flow to the lake, which in turn resulted in increased lake stages. Simulation results of withdrawal of water from Fish Lake at 500 gallons per minute, assuming 1990?98 climatic conditions, indicate that after 1 year of pumping the stage of Fish and Mud Lakes would be reduced more than 1 foot and the stage of Crystal Lake would be reduced by less than 0.2 foot. When pumping is stopped, the lake stages would recover to near pre-pumping levels within about 3 years. When pumping is extended to 5 years, Fish and Mud Lake stage would be reduced by a maximum of 3.8 feet and Crystal Lake stage is reduced a maximum of 0.8 feet. After 4 years of recovery, Fish and Mud Lake stages are within 0.9 foot of prepumping levels and Crystal Lake stage is within 0.7 foot.
Additional Publication Details
USGS Numbered Series
Simulation of Fish, Mud, and Crystal Lakes and the shallow ground-water system, Dane County, Wisconsin
Water-Resources Investigations Report
iv, 17 p. : ill. (some col.), maps (some col.) ; 28 cm.