The application of diazinon and chlorpyrifos on dormant orchards in 2001 in the San Joaquin River Basin was 24 percent less and 3.2 times more than applications in 2000, respectively. A total of 16 sites were sampled during January and February 2001 storm events: 7 river sites, 8 precipitation sites, and 1 urban storm drain. The seven river sites were sampled weekly during nonstorm periods and more frequently during storm runoff from a total of four storms. The monitoring of storm runoff at a city storm drain in Modesto, California, occurred simultaneously with the collection of precipitation samples from eight sites during a January 2001 storm event. The highest concentrations of diazinon occurred during the storm periods for all 16 sites, and the highest concentrations of chlorpyrifos occurred during weekly nonstorm sampling for the river sites and during the January storm period for the urban storm drain and precipitation sites. A total of 60 samples (41 from river sites, 10 from precipitation sites, and 9 from the storm drain site) had diazinon concentrations greater than 0.08 ?g/L, the concentration being considered by the California Department of Fish and Game as its criterion maximum concentration for the protection of aquatic habitats. A total of 18 samples (2 from river sites, 9 from precipitation sites, and 7 from the storm drain site) exceeded the equivalent California Department of Fish and Game guideline of 0.02 ?g/L for chlorpyrifos. The total diazinon load in the San Joaquin River near Vernalis during January and February 2001 was 23.8 pounds active ingredient; of this amount, 16.9 pounds active ingredient were transported by four storms, 1.06 pounds active ingredient were transported by nonstorm events, and 5.82 pounds active ingredient were considered to be baseline loads. The total chlorpyrifos load in the San Joaquin River near Vernalis during January and February 2001 was 2.17 pounds active ingredient; of this amount, 0.702 pound active ingredient was transported during the four storms, and 1.47 pounds active ingredient were considered as baseline load. The total January and February diazinon load in the San Joaquin River near Vernalis was 0.27 percent of dormant application; the total January and February chlorpyrifos load was 0.02 percent of dormant application. The precipitation samples collected during the January 2001 storm event were analyzed for pesticides to evaluate their potential contribution to pesticide loads in the study area. When the average concentrations of diazinon and chlorpyrifos in the precipitation samples were compared with concentrations in urban storm runoff samples, 68 percent of the diazinon concentration in the runoff could be accounted for in the precipitation. Chlorpyrifos, however, had average precipitation concentrations that were 2.5 times higher than what was detected in the runoff. Although no firm conclusions can be made from one storm event, preliminary results indicate that pesticides in precipitation can significantly contribute to pesticide loads in storm runoff.
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USGS Numbered Series
Diazinon and chlorpyrifos loads in precipitation and urban and agricultural storm runoff during January and February 2001 in the San Joaquin River basin, California