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Ground-water-quality appraisal of sand-plain aquifers in Hubbard, Morrison, Otter Tail, and Wadena Counties, Minnesota

Water-Resources Investigations Report 84-4080

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Abstract

Water samples were collected periodically from 124 wells completed in sand-plain aquifers in Hubbard, Morrison, Otter Tail, and Wadena Counties, Minnesota, during a 3-year study that began in October 1979. The study determined baseline groundwater quality, provided data for evaluation of trends, and investigated seasonal variations in concentration of selected chemical constituents. The ground water is predominately a calcium bicarbonate type with low to moderate concentrations of dissolved solids (77 to 710 milligrams per liter), and is chemically suitable for most uses. In local areas, concentrations of nitrogen, iron, and manganese exceed limits recommended by the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency for drinking water. Comparison to historical data indicates a trend towards local degradation of ground-water quality, which is attributed to the accumulation of nitrogen within and immediately downgradient from several major agricultural areas. Seasonal and annual variations in concentrations of some chemical constituents are related to ground-water-level fluctuations caused by recharge. At the Staples Irrigation Center near Staples, Minnesota, concentrations of nigrogen, chloride, and iron differ significantly with depth, which suggests local chemical stratification within the aquifer at least several hundred feet downgradient from the Center. The stratification exists throughout annual cycles, and is most pronounced during periods of little recharge (winter months). (USGS)

Additional Publication Details

Publication type:
Report
Publication Subtype:
USGS Numbered Series
Title:
Ground-water-quality appraisal of sand-plain aquifers in Hubbard, Morrison, Otter Tail, and Wadena Counties, Minnesota
Series title:
Water-Resources Investigations Report
Series number:
84-4080
Edition:
-
Year Published:
1984
Language:
ENGLISH
Publisher:
U.S. Geological Survey,
Description:
v, 49 p. :ill., maps ;28 cm.