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The city of Battle Creek has 30 wells in the Verona well field capable of yielding 300 to 1,000 gallons per minute each. During summer, total withdrawals are as little as 6,000 gallons per minute. In early 1984, only 9 to 12 of the wells were being used; the remaining wells were contaminated by volatile hydrocarbons. Ground-water flow is in three aquifers--a sand and gravel aquifer in deposits of Pleistocene age that overlies upper and lower sandstone aquifers of the Marshall Formation of Mississippian age. Horizontal hydraulic conductivity values are 15 to 110 feet per day for the sand and gravel aquifer, 150 feet per day for the upper sandstone aquifer, and 550 feet per day for the lower sandstone aquifer. Recharge rates range from 8 to 13 inches per year. Model simulations to evaluate the feasibility of installing new supply wells immediately north of the present field indicate that pumping 3,750 gallons per minute from new wells at the site would produce about 7 feet of drawdown. Because the new wells tap only the lower sandstone aquifer, the pumping would have little effect on the potentiometric surfaces for the two overlying aquifers. (USGS)
Additional Publication Details
USGS Numbered Series
Geohydrology and ground-water flow at Verona Well Field, Battle Creek, Michigan
Water-Resources Investigations Report
U.S. Geological Survey,
vi, 54 p. :ill., maps ;28 x 43 cm. folded to 28 x 22 cm.