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Hydrology of the alluvial, buried channel, basal Pleistocene and Dakota aquifers in west-central Iowa

Water-Resources Investigations Report 85-4239

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Abstract

A groundwater resources investigation in west-central Iowa indicated that water is available from alluvial, buried channel, basal Pleistocene, and Dakota aquifers. Nine alluvial aquifers consisting of sand and gravel are in the valleys of the Little Sioux, Maple Soldier, Boyer, West Nishabotna, East Nishnabotna, South Raccoon, Middle Raccoon, and North Raccoon Rivers. These aquifers contain about 870,000 acre-ft of water that is potentially available to wells. Potential well yields generally are < 50 gal/min. The water generally is very hard (> 180 mg/L hardness as calcium carbonate), is a calcium bicarbonate type, and has an average dissolved solids concentration of < 600 mg/L. Seven buried channel aquifers consisting of sand and gravel, underlay about 594 sq mi in west-central Iowa and contain about 65,000 acre-ft of water potentially available to wells. Potential well yields of as much as 1,000 gal/min are possible in a few of the deeper and thicker parts of some of the buried channel aquifers, but well yields of 10 to 100 gal/min are more common. Water generally was very hard, is a calcium bicarbonate type, and had an average dissolved solids concentration of 400 to 800 mg/L in the shallow buried channel aquifers in Carroll, Greene, and Guthrie Counties. In the deep buried channel aquifer in Audubon, Crawford, Harrison, Monona, and Shelby counties, the water is generally very hard, is a sodium sulfate or calcium sulfate type, and has an average dissolved solids concentrations of 3,000 mg/L. The basal Pleistocene aquifer is at the base of the Pleistocene deposits on many bedrock ridges and consisted of sand and gravel. Estimated well yields of as much as 500 gal/min could be obtained from the aquifer; however, 5 to 50 gal/min were more common. Water from the basal Pleistocene aquifer generally is very hard, is a calcium bicarbonate or calcium sulfate type, and has an average dissolved solids concentration of 1,000 mg/L. The Dakota aquifer consists of the saturated sandstone and gravel units in the Dakota Formation. Sandstone thickness of as much as 150 ft exists in Guthrie County, but an average thickness of 30 ft is more common. Water from wells < 200 ft deep generally is a calcium bicarbonate type and has an average dissolved solids concentration of 650 mg/L. Water from wells > 200 ft deep generally is a calcium sulfate or sodium bicarbonate type and has an average dissolved solids concentrations of 2,200 mg/L. (Author 's abstract)

Additional Publication Details

Publication type:
Report
Publication Subtype:
USGS Numbered Series
Title:
Hydrology of the alluvial, buried channel, basal Pleistocene and Dakota aquifers in west-central Iowa
Series title:
Water-Resources Investigations Report
Series number:
85-4239
Edition:
-
Year Published:
1985
Language:
ENGLISH
Publisher:
U.S. Geological Survey,
Description:
x, 111 p. :ill., maps ;28 cm.