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Hydrology, aquatic macrophytes, and water quality of Black Earth Creek and its tributaries, Dane County, Wisconsin, 1985-86

Water-Resources Investigations Report 89-4089

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Abstract

An intensive monitoring program of Black Earth Creek and its tributaries, in southern Wisconsin was conducted from October 1983 through September 1986, to define aquatic macrophytes, water quality, and the hydrologic factors that affect trout populations. Streamflows for water years 1985 and 1986 were 44 and 60% greater than the long-term average (1955-86). The highest average annual discharge since 1954, 53.4 cu ft/sec, was recorded in water year 1986. The data indicate that trout populations may be related to average annual streamflow because of greater water volumes and colder water temperature. Summer storm runoff resulted in decreased dissolved-oxygen content in two streams studied. During one storm, dissolved oxygen in Black Earth Creek decreased 3.0 mg/L and was less than 6.0 mg/L (the minimum State standard for trout) for 30 hours. Aquatic macrophyte biomass in Black Earth Creek was substantially less in 1986 than in 1985 because of substrate scouring from a flood in July 1985. Discharge from point and nonpoint sources affects Black Earth Creek 's water quality. Warm water discharged from a gravel pit increased water temperatures from 2 C to 4 C. Detention ponds in the Brewery Creek basin appear to effectively control suspended-sediment and phosphorus runoff during periods of moderate runoff; this basin had the highest concentration of suspended sediment and total phosphorus but did not have the highest yields of the basins studied. Suspended-sediment yields in water year 1985 were 29% greater than the 12-year-average yields (1955-65, 1985). (USGS)

Additional Publication Details

Publication type:
Report
Publication Subtype:
USGS Numbered Series
Title:
Hydrology, aquatic macrophytes, and water quality of Black Earth Creek and its tributaries, Dane County, Wisconsin, 1985-86
Series title:
Water-Resources Investigations Report
Series number:
89-4089
Edition:
-
Year Published:
1990
Language:
ENGLISH
Publisher:
Dept. of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey ; Books and Open-File Reports Section [distributor],
Description:
vi, 38 p. :ill. ;28 cm.