Glacial sand and gravel and shallow bedrock form the primary unconfined aquifers and are the source of domestic water supply. Saturated thickness of glacial deposits range from approximately zero feet to 150 feet where bedrock crops out. Horizontal hydraulic conductivity of the sand and gravel and bedrock aquifers is estimated to be 5 and 0.3 feet per day, respectively. Two watersheds encompass the Reservation: the Wolf and the South Branch Oconto. Flow duration, low-flow and flood-frequency characteristics were estimated using mean-dally discharge for the period 1907 through 1985 for the Wolf River at Keshena Falls near Keshena. Ground water from the sand and gravel and bedrook aquifers is a calcium magnesium bicarbonate type. Iron or manganese concentrations exceeding U.S. Environmental Protection Agency secondary maximum contaminant levels were found in approximately one-quarter to one-half of the wells sampled. Approximately three-quarters of the ground water sampled during the study is moderately hard to very hard with a median hardness equal to 171 mg/L (milligrams per liter) (as calcium carbonate) for the sand and gravel aquifer and 165 mg/L (as calcium carbonate) for the Precambrian aquifer. Alkalinity of the ground water ranged from 26 to 211 mg/L with a median value of 182 mg/L (as calcium carbonate) for the sand and gravel aquifer and ranged from 72 to 250 mg/L with a median value of 170 mg/L (as calcium carbonate) for the bedrock aquifer, Water samples collected from Reservation streams and lakes were similar to ground water (calcium magnesium bicarbonate type), reflecting the strong surface- water/ground-water interaction in the study area.
Additional publication details
USGS Numbered Series
Water resources of the Menominee Indian Reservation of Wisconsin