Methods are presented for estimating flood volumes and simulating flood hydrographs of rural streams in Ohio whose drainage areas are less than 6.5 square miles. The methods were developed to assist engineers in the design of hydraulic structures for which the temporary storage of water is a critical element of the design criteria. Examples of how to use the methods also are presented.
Multiple-regression equations were developed to estimate maximum flood volumes of d-hour duration and T-year recurrence interval (dVT). Flood-volume data for all combinations of six durations (1, 2, 4, 8, 16, and 32 hours) and six recurrence intervals (2, 5, 10, 25, 50, and 100 years) were analyzed. The significant independent variables in the resulting 36 equations are drainage area, average annual precipitation, main-channel slope, and forested area. Standard errors of prediction for the 36 dVT equations range from +28 percent to +44 percent.
A method is described for simulating flood hydrographs by applying a peak discharge and an estimated basin lagtime to a dimensionless hydrograph. Peak discharge may be estimated from equations in which drainage area, main-channel slope, and storage area are the significant explanatory variables, and average standard errors of prediction range from +33 to +41 percent. An equation is developed for estimating basin lagtime in which main-channel slope, forested area, and storage area are the significant explanatory variables, and the average standard error of prediction is +37 percent. A dimensionless hydrograph developed for use in Georgia was verified for use in Ohio.
Step-by-step examples show how to (1) simulate flood hydrographs and compute their volumes, and (2) estimate volume-duration-frequency relations of small ungaged rural streams in Ohio. The volumes estimated by the two methods are compared. Both methods yield similar results for volume estimates of short duration, which are applicable to convective-type storm runoff. The volume-duration-frequency equations can be used to compute volume estimates of long and short duration because the equations are based on maximum-annual-volume data of long and short duration. The dimensionless-hydrograph method is based on flood hydrographs of average duration and cannot be used to compute volume estimates of long duration. Volume estimates of long duration may be considerably greater than volume estimates of short duration and are applicable to runoff from frontal-type storms.
Additional Publication Details
USGS Numbered Series
Estimation of flood volumes and simulation of flood hydrographs for ungaged small rural streams in Ohio
Water-Resources Investigations Report
U.S. Geological Survey ;
U.S.G.S. Earth Science Information Center, Open-File Reports Section [distributor],