Geology and ground-water resources in the Zebulon area, Georgia

Water-Resources Investigations Report 93-4161

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The current (1991) surface-water source of drinking-water supply for the city of Zebulon, Pike County, Georgia, no longer provides an adequate water supply and periodically does not meet water-quality standards. The hydrogeology of crystalline rocks in the Zebulon area was evaluated to assess the potential of ground-water resources as a supplemental or alternative source of water to present surface-water supplies. As part of the ground-water resource evaluation, well location and construction data were compiled, a geologic map was constructed, and ground water was sampled and analyzed. Three mappable geologic units delineated during this study provide a basic understanding of hydrogeologic settings in the Zebulon area. Rock types include a variety of aluminosilicate schists, granitic rocks, amphibolites/honblende gneisses, and gondites. Several geologic features that may enhance ground-water availability were identified in the study area. These features include contacts between contrasting rock types, where a high degree of differential weathering has occurred, and well-developed structural features, such as foliation and jointing are present. High-yielding wells (greater than 25 gallons per minute) and low-yielding wells (less than one gallon per minute) were located in all three geologic units in a variety of topographic settings. Well yields range from less than one gallon per minute to 250 gallons per minute. The variable total depths and wide ranges of casing depths of the high-yielding wells are indicative of variations in depths to water-bearing zones and regolith thicknesses, respectively. The depth of water-bearing zones is highly variable, even on a local scale. Analyses of ground-water samples indicate that the distribution of iron concentration is as variable as well yield in the study area and does not seem to be related to a particular rock type. Iron concentrations in ground-water samples ranged from 0.02 to 5.3 milligrams per liter. Both iron concentration and well yield vary substantially over a relatively small area. Implementation and Verification of a One-Dimensional, Unsteady-Flow Model for Spring Brook near Warrenville, Illinois By Mary J. Turner, Anthony P. Pulokas, and Audrey L. Ishii Abstract A one-dimensional, unsteady-flow model, Full EQuations (FEQ) model, based on de Saint-Venant equations for dynamic flow in open channels, was calibrated and verified for a 0.75-mile reach of Spring Brook, a tributary to the West Branch Du Page River, near Warrenville in northeastern Illinois. The model was used to simulate streamflow in a small urban stream reach with two short culverts, one with overbank flow around the culvert during high flows. Streamflow data were collected on the reach during three high-flow periods. Data from one period were used to calibrate the model, and data from the other two periods were used to verify the model. Stages and discharges over the periods were simulated, and the results were compared graphically with stage and discharge data collected at 10 sites in the study reach. Errors in simulated stage and discharge were small except when debris, not represented in the model, clogged the culvert. The effects of changes in physical and computational model parameters also were studied. The model was insensit'lve to replacement of measured cross sections with interpolated cross sections, especially if the measured thalweg elevation was preserved. Variation of the roughness, slope, and length of the culvert over-bank section, as well as the chosen representative measured cross section, caused only slight changes in the simulated peak stage and discharge. Changes in the modeled culvert area caused large differences in the simulated highflows in the vicinity of the culvert, whereas simulated low flows were unaffected. At all flows, the misrepresentation of the culvert area caused the simulated water-surface elevations to deviate from the measured elevations, especially on the falling

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USGS Numbered Series
Geology and ground-water resources in the Zebulon area, Georgia
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Water-Resources Investigations Report
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U.S. Geological Survey ; U.S. Geological Survey, Earth Science Information Center, Open File Reports Section [distributor],
v, 27 p. :ill., maps ;28 cm.