Vadnais Lake, located in Ramsey County, Minnesota, is used by the St. Paul Water Utility for storage of municipal water supplies. In recent years algal blooms in Vadnais Lake have caused taste and odor problems in the water. Phosphorus enrichment in the lake is potentially a significant contributing factor in the algal growth. Surface-water drainage from wetlands in Lambert's Creek watershed, which extends over 20 square miles to the east of the lake, is known to be a significant source of the phosphorus during wet years. Results of this study indicate that groundwater does not transport large concentrations of phosphorus into Vadnais Lake. Seepage into and out of Vadnais Lake was estimated by the following methods: (1) interpretation of the hydraulic conductivities of glacial deposits around the lake and of the hydraulic gradients between groundwater in these deposits and the lake, and (2) interpretation of the hydraulic conductivities of lake-bed materials and of the hydraulic gradients between ground water in the lake bed and the lake. The estimated net annual seepage out of the lake determined by the second method was 9.56 x 10 to the seventh power cubic feet per year, which exceeded by an order of magnitude the value determined by the first method, of 2.82 x 100 cubic feet per year. The net seepage out of the lake is a very small component of the lake water budget. Inf1ow to Vadnais Lake is mostly streamf1ow from Sucker Creek, which is largely water from the Mississippi River routed through a series of lakes, and outflow from the lake is mostly withdrawals by the St. Paul Water Utility.
Additional publication details
USGS Numbered Series
Quality of ground water around Vadnais Lake and in Lambert Creek watershed, and interaction of ground water with Vadnais Lake, Ramsey County, Minnesota
Water-Resources Investigations Report
U.S. Geological Survey ;
Earth Science Information Center, Open-File Reports Section [distributor],