The hydrology and water quality of Whitewater and Rice Lakes was studied by the U.S. Geological Survey during November 15, 1990-November 14, 1991. Only 1.4 square miles of Whitewater Lake's drainage basin and 0.2 square mile of Rice Lake's drainage basin con- tribute surface runoff to the lakes. The artificial lakes, created in about 1950, are small and shallow. Water levels were below the dam crests during the study as well as in many previous years. Ground water was the dominant source of water to Whitewater Lake, accounting for 57 percent of the inflow water budget. Ground water accounted for 81 percent of the outflow water budget. Precipitation was the dominant source of water to Rice Lake, accounting for 87 percent of the inflow water budget. Evaporation accounted for 66 percent of the outflow water budget. Use of Vollenweider's model which predicts trophic state from external phosphorus loading and the lakes mean depth showed that phosphorus loadings would result in mesotrophic to eutrophic conditions in Whitewater Lake and mesotrophic conditions in Rice Lake. The external phosphorus budgets for both lakes showed that shoreline drainage was the largest contributor of phosphorus--42 percent of the total input of 558 pounds for Whitewater Lake and 59 percent of the total input of 63 pounds for Rice Lake. Internal recycling of phosphorus during summer however, rather than external loading, seems to cause most of the water-quality problems in both lakes. For the period April 1-November 14, 1991, an internal load of 582 pounds was estimated for Whitewater Lake, and 295 pounds for Rice Lake.
Additional publication details
USGS Numbered Series
Hydrology and water quality of Whitewater and Rice lakes in southeastern Wisconsin, 1990-91
Water-Resources Investigations Report
U.S. Dept. of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey ;
Earth Science Information Center, Open-File Reports Section [distributor],