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Water levels in the Calumet aquifer and their relation to surface-water levels in northern Lake County, Indiana, 1985-92

Water-Resources Investigations Report 94-4110

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Abstract

The Calumet aquifer is an unconsolidated sand unit in northern Lake County, Indiana. In many parts of the study area, heavy industry has affected the ground-water quality. This report describes water levels in the aquifer, the Grand Calumet River, Indiana Harbor Canal, and Lake Michigan. Water-level collected during August 1985-September 1992 are presented and interpreted. Summary statistics of the water-level data were computed for 96 sites. Water-table maps are presented to show directions of ground-water flow and, thus, the potential for contaminants to enter Lake Michigan. Ground-water levels reach an annual maximum in June or July and decline to a minimum in September or October. The average ground-water fluctuation in the Calumet aquifer is about 2.3 feet. These low-magnitude fluctuations are indicative of thelarge storage capacity of the Calumet aquifer and the connection of the Calumet aquifer to the Grand Calumet River. The largest surface-water fluctuations measured by the U.S. Geological Survey were on Lake Michigan. The lake level fluctuated 4.14 feet during the data-collection period. High levels of Lake Michigan during 1985-87 created backwater effects on the Grand Calumet River more than 11.0 miles upstream from the lake. Data indicate that (1) water levels in the Calumet aquifer were not significantly affected by the 1988 drought, although vertical flow gradients reversed in most deep and shallow paired wells; and (2) horizontal ground-water flow is toward streams, ditches, sewers, dewatering operations, the Indiana Harbor Canal, and Lake Michigan.

Additional Publication Details

Publication type:
Report
Publication Subtype:
USGS Numbered Series
Title:
Water levels in the Calumet aquifer and their relation to surface-water levels in northern Lake County, Indiana, 1985-92
Series title:
Water-Resources Investigations Report
Series number:
94-4110
Edition:
-
Year Published:
1995
Language:
ENGLISH
Publisher:
U.S. Dept. of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey ; Earth Science Information Center, Open-File Reports Section [distributor],
Description:
v, 61 p. :ill., maps ;28 cm.