Characteristics, transport, and yield of sediment in Juday Creek, St. Joseph County, Indiana, 1993-94

Water-Resources Investigations Report 95-4135




Juday Creek is a tributary of the St. Joseph River in St. Joseph County, north-central Indiana. The creek has been identified as one of the few streams in the State that can support a naturally reproducing brown trout population. A recent study of benthic invertebrates shows a decline in the production rate of insect species and suggests that this decline may be caused by increased sedimen- tation. This report presents the results of a study of the sediment conditions in Juday Creek from April 1993 through June 1994. Measurements of streamflow, suspended sediment, and bedload were made at six sampling sites during three storms and a period of low flow. A total of 11 samples were collected during storms, and 1 sample was collected during low flow at each site. Bed-material samples were collected at the six sites. Sediment cores were collected from the delta of an instream pond and at a sediment trap near the mouth of the stream. Scour and fill at the six sites were monitored by means of scour chains and surveyed cross sections. The instream pond was surveyed twice, and the volume weight of the sediment was determined to estimate the yield of sediment for the upper reach of Juday Creek. Particle-size distributions indicate that the bed material is predominantly sand and gravel and that very little of the bed material is silt or finer (less than 0.062 millimeter). Analysis of sediment cores showed that most of the sediment deposited in the sediment trap and instream pond was sand. Sediment sampling during a period of low flow detected only minimal concentrations of suspended sediment; the maximum concentration was 6 milligrams per liter, equivalent to a daily load of 0.32 ton. Bedload ranged from 5.2 to 76.7 grams per cross- channel sampling, equivalent to 0.11 to 1.70 tons per day. Sediment sampling during the storms indicates that bedload discharge is the primary mode of sediment transport. Suspended-sediment concentration ranged from 4 to 67 milligrams per liter; the median was 17 milligrams per liter. Bedload ranged from 3.4 to 862 grams per cross- channel sampling; the median was 109 grams. Only 15 percent of the samples were less than 50 grams. Scour chains and surveyed cross sections documented some scour and fill at most of the sites. Scour and fill tended to balance out; after a 1-year period, the net change in the streambed altitude was minimal. Some infilling was the net result at most of the sites. Surveys of the instream pond determined that the volume of sediment delivered to the pond from April 1993 to April 1994 was approximately 26,500 cubic feet. The average volume weight of the sediment was determined to be 102 pounds per cubic foot. The sediment yield for the upper reach of Juday Creek from April 1993 to April 1994 was estimated to be 48 tons per square mile.

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USGS Numbered Series
Characteristics, transport, and yield of sediment in Juday Creek, St. Joseph County, Indiana, 1993-94
Series title:
Water-Resources Investigations Report
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U.S. Geological Survey ; Earth Science Information Center, Open-File Reports Section [distributor],
v, 47 p. :ill., maps ;28 cm.