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Ground-water levels and directions of flow in Geauga County, Ohio, September 1994, and changes in ground-water levels, 1986-94

Water-Resources Investigations Report 95-4194

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Abstract

This report presents the results of a study by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Geauga County Planning Commission and Board of County Commissioners, to determine directions of ground-water flow and to assess differences from 1986 to 1994 in ground-water levels in the glacial deposits and Pottsville Formation, Cuyahoga Group, and the Berea Sandstone. Water levels were measured in 219 wells in Geauga County, Ohio, in September 1994. Water levels measured in January and February 1986 in 88 of the 219 wells were used for comparison. Water-level maps constructed from measurements made in September 1994 to show that ground-water levels in the Pottsville Formation and the glacial deposits generally correspond to the land-surface configuration and that ground water flows from the uplands to adjacent streams and buried valleys. Ground-water flow in the Cuyahoga Group is generally downward from the Pottsville Formation to the Berea Sandstone. Directions of ground-water flow in the Berea Sandstone are toward outcrop areas at the north and east edges of Geauga County and toward sub-crops beneath buried glacial valley deposits in Chardon, Chester, Munson, and Russel Townships and along the west edge of the county. A comparison of water level measurements in 1986 and 1994 indicates that water levels declined in 70 percent of the measured wells and increased in 30 percent. The change in water levels from 1986 to 1994 ranged from an increase of 13.58 feet to a decrease of 29.25 feet. Thirty percent of all water-level changes were less than 1 foot in magnitude. In nearly 80 percent of the wells, water-level changes were within the range of plus or minus 5 feet. Among the wells for which two or more historical measurements were available, the 1994 water levels in 54 percent were outside the range of water-levels observed in previous studies (only 24 percent were greater than 1 foot outside of the previously-observed range). Water-level declines of greater than 10 feet were primarily in the Cuyahoga Group and Berea Sandstone. Some factors considered in the analysis of the differences in water levels in 1986 and 1994 were changes in water use, population, and the amount of available recharge. Water level differences could not be correlated to population changes between the 1980 and 1990 censuses. A decrease in the available recharge from 1986 to 1994 may be part of the cause for the decrease in water levels observed in two-thirds of the wells in and adjacent to Geauga County. Effects of withdrawal rates due to population increase on water levels, if present, are overshadowed by the effects of annual variations in precipitation.

Additional Publication Details

Publication type:
Report
Publication Subtype:
USGS Numbered Series
Title:
Ground-water levels and directions of flow in Geauga County, Ohio, September 1994, and changes in ground-water levels, 1986-94
Series title:
Water-Resources Investigations Report
Series number:
95-4194
Edition:
-
Year Published:
1995
Language:
ENGLISH
Publisher:
U.S. Geological Survey ; Earth Science Information Center, Open-File Reports Section [distributor],
Description:
iv, 28 p. :ill., maps ;28 cm.