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Flood-plain and channel aggradation of selected bridge sites in the Iowa and Skunk River basins, Iowa

Water-Resources Investigations Report 95-4290

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Abstract

Flood-plain and channel-aggradation rates were estimated at 10 bridge sites on the Iowa River upstream of Coralville Lake and at two bridge sites in the central part of the Skunk River Basin. Four measurement methods were used to quantify aggradation rates: (1) a dendrogeomorphic method that used tree-age data and sediment-deposition depths, (2) a bridge-opening cross-section method that compared historic and recent cross sections of bridge openings, (3) a stage-discharge rating-curve method that compared historic and recent stages for the 5-year flood discharge and the average discharge, and (4) nine sediment pads that were installed on the Iowa River flood plain at three bridge sites in the vicinity of Marshalltown. The sediment pads were installed prior to overbank flooding in 1993. Sediments deposited on the pads as a result of the 1993 flood ranged in depth from 0.004 to 2.95 feet. Measurement periods used to estimate average aggradation rates ranged from 1 to 98 years and varied among methods and sites. The highest aggradation rates calculated for the Iowa River Basin using the dendrogeomorphic and rating- curve measurement methods were for the State Highway 14 crossing at Marshalltown, where these highest rates were 0.045 and 0.124 feet per year, respectively. The highest aggradation rates calculated for the Skunk River Basin were for the U.S. Highway 63 crossing of the South Skunk River near Oskaloosa, where these highest rates were 0.051 and 0.298 feet per year, respectively.

Additional Publication Details

Publication type:
Report
Publication Subtype:
USGS Numbered Series
Title:
Flood-plain and channel aggradation of selected bridge sites in the Iowa and Skunk River basins, Iowa
Series title:
Water-Resources Investigations Report
Series number:
95-4290
Edition:
-
Year Published:
1996
Language:
ENGLISH
Publisher:
U.S. Geological Survey ; U.S. Geological Survey Information Services [distributor],
Description:
vi, 44 p. :ill., maps ;28 cm.