Estimates of evapotranspiration (ET) for the Rainbow and Silver Springs ground-water basins in north-central Florida were determined using a regional water-~budget approach and compared to estimates computed using a modified Priestley-Taylor (PT) model calibrated with eddy-correlation data. Eddy-correlation measurements of latent 0~E) and sensible (H) heat flux were made monthly for a few days at a time, and the PT model was used to estimate 3,E between times of measurement during the 1994 water year. A water-budget analysis for the two-basin area indicated that over a 30-year period (196594) annual rainfall was 51.7 inches. Of the annual rainfall, ET accounted for about 37.9 inches; springflow accounted for 13.1 inches; and the remaining 0.7 inch was accounted for by stream-flow, by ground-water withdrawals from the Floridan aquifer system, and by net change in storage. For the same 30-year period, the annual estimate of ET for the Silver Springs basin was 37.6 inches and was 38.5 inches for the Rainbow Springs basin. Wet- and dry-season estimates of ET for each basin averaged between nearly 19 inches and 20 inches, indicating that like rainfall, ET rates during the 4-month wet season were about twice the ET rates during the 8-month dry season. Wet-season estimates of ET for the Rainbow Springs and Silver Springs basins decreased 2.7 inches, and 3.4 inches, respectively, over the 30-year period; whereas, dry-season estimates for the basins decreased about 0.4 inch and1.0 inch, respectively, over the 30-year period. This decrease probably is related to the general decrease in annual rainfall and reduction in net radiation over the basins during the 30-year period. ET rates computed using the modified PT model were compared to rates computed from the water budget for the 1994 water year. Annual ET, computed using the PT model, was 32.0 inches, nearly equal to the ET water-budget estimate of 31.7 inches computed for the Rainbow Springs and Silver Springs basins. Modeled ET rates for 1994 ranged from 14.4 inches per year in January to 51.6 inches per year in May. Water-budget ET rates for 1994 ranged from 12.0 inches per year in March to 61.2 inches per year in July. Potential evapotranspiration rates for 1994 averaged 46.8 inches per year and ranged from 21.6 inches per year in January to 74.4 inches per year in May. Lake evaporation rates averaged 47.1 inches per year and ranged from 18.0 inches per year in January to 72.0 inches per year in May 1994.
Additional publication details
USGS Numbered Series
Estimation of evapotranspiration in the Rainbow Springs and Silver Springs basins in North-Central Florida
Water-Resources Investigations Report
U.S. Geological Survey ;
Open-File Reports Section [distributor],