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Full Equations (FEQ) model for the solution of the full, dynamic equations of motion for one-dimensional unsteady flow in open channels and through control structures

Water-Resources Investigations Report 96-4240

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Abstract

The Full EQuations (FEQ) model is a computer program for solution of the full, dynamic equations of motion for one-dimensional unsteady flow in open channels and through control structures. A stream system that is simulated by application of FEQ is subdivided into stream reaches (branches), parts of the stream system for which complete information on flow and depth are not required (dummy branches), and level-pool reservoirs. These components are connected by special features; that is, hydraulic control structures, including junctions, bridges, culverts, dams, waterfalls, spillways, weirs, side weirs, and pumps. The principles of conservation of mass and conservation of momentum are used to calculate the flow and depth throughout the stream system resulting from known initial and boundary conditions by means of an implicit finite-difference approximation at fixed points (computational nodes). The hydraulic characteristics of (1) branches including top width, area, first moment of area with respect to the water surface, conveyance, and flux coefficients and (2) special features (relations between flow and headwater and (or) tail-water elevations, including the operation of variable-geometry structures) are stored in function tables calculated in the companion program, Full EQuations UTiLities (FEQUTL). Function tables containing other information used in unsteady-flow simulation (boundary conditions, tributary inflows or outflows, gate settings, correction factors, characteristics of dummy branches and level-pool reservoirs, and wind speed and direction) are prepared by the user as detailed in this report. In the iterative solution scheme for flow and depth throughout the stream system, an interpolation of the function tables corresponding to the computational nodes throughout the stream system is done in the model. FEQ can be applied in the simulation of a wide range of stream configurations (including loops), lateral-inflow conditions, and special features. The accuracy and convergence of the numerical routines in the model are demonstrated for the case of laboratory measurements of unsteady flow in a sewer pipe. Verification of the routines in the model for field data on the Fox River in northeastern Illinois also is briefly discussed. The basic principles of unsteady-flow modeling and the relation between steady flow and unsteady flow are presented. Assumptions and the limitations of the model also are presented. The schematization of the stream system and the conversion of the physical characteristics of the stream reaches and a wide range of special features into function tables for model applications are described. The modified dynamic-wave equation used in FEQ for unsteady flow in curvilinear channels with drag on minor hydraulic structures and channel constrictions determined from an equivalent energy slope is developed. The matrix equation relating flows and depths at computational nodes throughout the stream system by the continuity (conservation of mass) and modified dynamic-wave equations is illustrated for four sequential examples. The solution of the matrix equation by Newton's method is discussed. Finally, the input for FEQ and the error messages and warnings issued are presented.

Additional Publication Details

Publication type:
Report
Publication Subtype:
USGS Numbered Series
Title:
Full Equations (FEQ) model for the solution of the full, dynamic equations of motion for one-dimensional unsteady flow in open channels and through control structures
Series title:
Water-Resources Investigations Report
Series number:
96-4240
Edition:
-
Year Published:
1997
Language:
ENGLISH
Publisher:
U.S. Geological Survey,
Description:
viii, 258 p. :ill., maps ;28 cm.