Ground-water recharge is estimated from a monthly water budget calculated using long-term average rainfall and streamflow data, synthesized pan-evaporation data, and soil characteristics. The water-budget components are defined seasonally, through the use of monthly data, and spatially by geohydrologic areas, through the use of a geographic information system model.<\p>
The long-term average ground-water recharge for Molokai was estimated for natural land-use conditions. The island-wide mean recharge rate for natural conditions is 189 million gallons per day, which is 34 percent of rainfall. The island-wide rainfall, direct runoff, and actual evapotranspiration are 552, 89, and 274 millions gallons per day, respectively.