Neogene and Quaternary sediments constitute the surficial aquifer beneath the study area; in descending order from youngest to oldest these include-the Quaternary undifferentiated surficial sand and Satilla Formation; the Pliocene(?) Cypresshead Formation; and the middle Miocene Coosawhatchie Formation. Beneath the surficial aquifer, the upper Brunswick aquifer consists of part of the lower Miocene Marks Head Formation.
The surficial aquifer is divided into three water-bearing zones on the basis of lithologic and geophysical properties of sediments, hydraulic-head differences between zones, and differences in ground-water chemistry. The shallowest zone-the water-table zone-consists of medium to fine sand and clayey sand and is present from land surface to a depth of about 77 feet. Below the water-table zone, the confined upper water-bearing zone consists of medium to very coarse sand and is present from a depth of about 110 to 132 feet. Beneath the upper water-bearing zone, the confined lower water-bearing zone consists of coarse sand and very fine gravel and is present from a depth of about 195 to 237 feet. Hydraulic separation is suggested by differences in water chemistry between the water-table zone and upper water-bearing zone. The sodium chloride type water in the water-table zone differs from the calcium bicarbonate type water in the upper water-bearing zone. Hydraulic separation also is indicated by hydraulic head differences of more than 6.5 feet between the water-table zone and the upper water-bearing zone.
Continuous and synoptic water-level measurements in the water-table zone, from October 1995 to April 1997, indicate the presence of a water-table high beneath and adjacent to the former landfill-the surface of which varies about 5 feet with time because of recharge and discharge. Water-level data from clustered wells also suggest that restriction of vertical ground-water flow begins to occur at an altitude of about 5 to 10 feet below sea level (35 to 40 feet below land surface) in the water-table zone because of the increasing clay content of the Cypresshead Formation.
Additional Publication Details
USGS Numbered Series
Hydrogeology of the surficial aquifer in the vicinity of a former landfill, Naval Submarine Base Kings Bay, Camden County, Georgia
Water-Resources Investigations Report
U.S. Dept. of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey ;
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