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Quality of wet deposition in the Grand Calumet River watershed, northwestern Indiana, October 17, 1995-November 12, 1996

Water-Resources Investigations Report 99-4253

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Abstract

In June 1992, a wet-deposition collection site was established at the Gary (Indiana) Regional Airport to monitor the quantity and chemical quality of wet deposition. During the first phase of sampling, 48 wet-deposition samples were collected between June 30, 1992, and August 31, 1993. A second phase of sampling began in October 1995. During the second phase of sampling, 40 wet-deposition samples were collected between October 17, 1995, and November 12, 1996. This report presents the findings for the second phase of sampling and compares those results to the first phase of sampling. Northwestern Indiana is a heavily industrialized area. Steel production and petroleum refining are two of the area?s predominant industries. High-temperature processes, such as fossil-fuel combustion and steel production, release contaminants to the atmosphere that may result in wet deposition being a major contributor to major-ion and trace-metal loadings in northwestern Indiana and Lake Michigan. Wet-deposition samples collected during the first and second phases of sampling were analyzed for pH, specific conductance, and selected major ions and trace metals. Forty weekly wet-deposition samples were collected at the Gary (Indiana) Regional Airport during the second phase of sampling. Approximately 1.2 times as much wet deposition was collected during the second phase of sampling compared to the first phase. Statistically significant increases (at the 5-percent significance level) in concentrations of potassium, iron, lead, and zinc were determined for samples collected during the second phase of sampling when compared to the first. No statistically significant differences were determined in constituent concentrations between samples collected during warm weather (April 1 through October 31) and during cold weather (November 1 through March 31). Annual loadings for the second phase of sampling were greater than 2 times the loadings determined during the first phase of sampling for silica, iron, potassium, lead, and zinc.

Additional Publication Details

Publication type:
Report
Publication Subtype:
USGS Numbered Series
Title:
Quality of wet deposition in the Grand Calumet River watershed, northwestern Indiana, October 17, 1995-November 12, 1996
Series title:
Water-Resources Investigations Report
Series number:
99-4253
Edition:
-
Year Published:
2000
Language:
ENGLISH
Publisher:
U.S. Dept. of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey ; Branch of Information Services [distributor],
Description:
v, 47 p. :ill., maps ;28 cm.