Liberty County is in the Gulf Coastal Plain of southeastern Texas in the second tier of counties back from the Gulf.
The geologic formations discussed in this report in upward sequence consist of the Oakville sandstone of Miocene age and the Lagarto clay of Miocene (?) age, the Willis sand of Pliocene (?) age, and the Lissie formation and Beaumont clay of Pleistocene age. The rocks of these formations crop out in belts roughly parallel to the Gulf shore and dip southeastward. As one travels across San Jacinto and Liberty Counties from northwest to southeast the belts of outcrop are traversed in the above order, beginning with the 0akville sandstone and Lagarto clay.
The land surface slopes southeastward toward the Gulf at a rate less than the dip of the rocks; consequently artesian conditions exist in all parts of the county. The valley of the Trinity River is well known for its flowing weds, which range from 100 to 808 feet in depth.
Most of the ground water used in the county is obtained from wells ranging in depth from 350 to about 1,000 feet and is drawn from the Lissie formation. Wells yielding 1,000 to 3,500 gallons a minute and ranging from 740 to 1,030 feet in depth have been developed for rice irrigation in the North Dayton area, in the southwestern part of the county. These wells draw water mostly from sands in the Lissie formation, but most of them are also screened in overlying thinner sands in the Beaumont clay. The municipal water supplies of Liberty, Cleveland, Dayton, and Diasetta are obtained from wells ranging from 350 to 833 feet in depth with reported yields of 300 to 350 gallons a minute.
Most of the wells in the rural areas are less than 50 feet in depth and furnish small supplies of water for domestic use and for stock. Such supplies can be obtained almost anywhere in the county from shallow wells in the Lissie and Beaumont formations or in alluvial deposits.
The average daily withdrawal of ground water for irrigation, public supply, and industrial use is estimated to have been about 7,500,000 gallons in 1944, distributed as follows: irrigation, 6,780,000 gallons; public supply, 325,000 gallons; and industrial use, 395,000 gallons.
Additional publication details
USGS Numbered Series
Ground-water resources of Liberty County, Texas, with a section on Stream runoff