Large quantities of fresh ground water are available in Calcasieu Parish. Fresh water is present in sand of Recent, Pleistocene, Pliocene, and Miocene ages, although locally only small supplies for rural or stock use can be obtained from the shallow sand lenses of Recent and Pleistocene ages. The principal fresh-water-bearing sands are the '200-foot,' '500-foot,' and '700-foot' sands of the Chicot aquifer of Pleistocene age, from which 105 million gallons is pumped daily. A yield of as much as 4,500 gpm (gallons per minute) has been obtained from a single well. The sands are typical of the Chicot aquifer throughout southwestern Louisiana in that generally they grade from fine sand at the top to coarse sand and gravel at the base of the aquifer. The coefficient of permeability of the principal sands in Calcasieu Parish ranges from 660 to about 2,000 gpd (gallons per day) per square foot and averages 1,200 gpd per square foot. The permeability of the sands generally varies with textural changes.
The maximum depth of occurrence of fresh ground water in Calcasieu Parish ranges from about 700 feet to 2,500 feet below mean sea level; locally, however, where the sands overlie structures associated with oil fields, the maximum depth is less than 300 feet.
Pumping has caused water levels to decline, at varying rates, in all the sands. In the '200-foot' sand they are declining at a rate of about 2 feet per year. In the industrial district of Calcasieu Parish, levels in the '500-foot' sand are declining at a rate of about 5 feet per year, and in the '700-foot' sand at a rate of about 3.5 feet per year. Salt-water contamination is accompanying the water-level decline in the '700-foot' sand in the central part of the parish.
Quality-of-water data indicate that water from wells screened in the Chicot aquifer generally is suitable for some uses without treatment but would require treatment to be satisfactory for other uses. The temperature of the water ranges from 70? to 79?F.
The lenticular sands of Pliocene and Miocene ages have not been used as a source of fresh ground water in Calcasieu Parish; however, north of the Houston River these formations contain fresh water, and the water contained in these formations in other parts of southwestern Louisiana is known to be soft and suitable for most purposes.
Additional Publication Details
USGS Numbered Series
The geology and ground water resources of Calcasieu Parish, Louisiana