This report describes the theory and field procedures for determining the transmissibility and storage coefficients and the original hydrostatic head of each aquifer penetrated by a multiaquifer well. The procedure involves pumping the well in such a manner that the drawdown of water level is constant while the discharges of the different aquifers are measured by means of borehole flowmeters.
The theory is developed by analogy to the heat-flow problem solved by Smith. The internal discharge between aquifers after the well is completed is analyzed as the first step. Pumping at constant, drawdown constitutes the second step. Transmissibility and storage coefficients are determined by a method described by Jacob and Lohman, after the original internal discharge to or from the aquifer has been compensated for in the calculations. The original hydrostatic head of each aquifer is then determined by resubstituting the transmissibility and storage coefficients into the first step of the analysis.
The method was tested on a well in Chester County, Pa., but the results were not entirely satisfactory, owing to the lack of sufficiently accurate methods of flow measurement and, probably, to the effects of entrance losses in the well. The determinations of the transmissibility coefficient and static head can be accepted as having order-of-magnitude significance, but the determinations of the storage coefficient, which is highly sensitive to experimental error, must be rejected. It is felt that better results may be achieved in the future, as more reliable devices for metering the flow become available and as more is learned concerning the nature of entrance losses. If accurate data can be obtained, recently developed techniques of digital or analog computation may permit determination of the response of each aquifer in the well to any form of pumping.
Additional Publication Details
USGS Numbered Series
Constant-head pumping test of a multiaquifer well to determine characteristics of individual aquifers