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Hydraulic characteristics of an underdrained irrigation circle, Muskegon County, wastewater disposal system, Michigan

Water Supply Paper 2081

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Abstract

Muskegon County, Michigan, disposes of waste water by spray irrigating farmland on its waste-disposal site. Buried drains in the highly permeable unconfined aquifer at the site control the level of the water table. Hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer and drain-leakance, the reciprocal of resistance to flow into the drains, was determined at a representative irrigation circle while calibrating a model of the ground-water flow system. Hydraulic conductivity is 0.00055 meter per second in the north zone of the circle and 0.00039 meter per second in the south zone. Drain leakance is low in both zones: 2.9 x 10-6 meters per second in the north and 9.5 x 10-6 meters per second in the south. Low drain leakance is responsible for waterlogging when irrigation rates are maintained at design levels. The capacity of the study circle to accept waste water is 35 percent less than design capacity.

Additional Publication Details

Publication type:
Report
Publication Subtype:
USGS Numbered Series
Title:
Hydraulic characteristics of an underdrained irrigation circle, Muskegon County, wastewater disposal system, Michigan
Series title:
Water Supply Paper
Series number:
2081
Edition:
-
Year Published:
1981
Language:
ENGLISH
Publisher:
U.S. Dept. of the Interior, Geological Survey,
Description:
iii, 14 p. :ill. ;24 cm.