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National water summary 1984; hydrologic events, selected water-quality trends, and ground-water resources

Water Supply Paper 2275

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Abstract

The initial volume in the annual National Water Summary series (U.S. Geological Survey, 1984) introduced a chronology of hydrologic and water-related events to document their importance to human activities and also outlined a number of water issues of concern to the Nation. This second volume, National Water Summary 1984 Hydrologic Events, Selected Water-Quality Trends, and Ground-Water Resources, continues the chronology of events and presents additional information on several issues discussed in the 1983 volume. The 1984 National Water Summary is organized in three parts. The first part, "Hydrologic Conditions and Water- Related Events, Water Year 1984," provides a synopsis of the hydrologic conditions and water-related events that occurred during the 1984 water year (October 1, 1983-September 30, 1984). Streamflow variations are compared to precipitation, temperature, and upper-air atmospheric pressure for the four seasonal quarters of the year to relate surface-water flows to climatic conditions. The second part, "Hydrologic Perspectives on Water Issues," contains two sections. In the section titled "Water-Quality Issues," the occurrence of sediment, dissolved solids, nutrients, and pesticides in the Nation's streams are discussed. Recently compiled information is used to show the distribution and trends of these constituents and to relate them to various natural sources and human activities. The occurrence and sources of nitrate in ground water also are discussed. The section entitled "Water-Availability Issues" provides hydrologic explanations for changes in ground-water levels in several areas of the country. The articles in this part of the report complement a number of other reports, published during the past year, which provide information on the water quality of the Nation's rivers. The 1982 National Fisheries Survey (Judy and others, 1984), cosponsored by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, provides an assessment of biological conditions in a statistical sample of river segments throughout the United States. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency also sponsored an evaluation of the progress of water-pollution control efforts (Association of State and Interstate Water Pollution Control Administrators, 1984), an overview of nonpoint-source pollution (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1984a),and the 1982 National Water Quality Inventory (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1984b). Other recent studies that examine water resources from a national perspective include the 14th annual report of the U.S. Council on Environmental Quality (1983), the Conservation Foundation's (1984) State of the Environment report, and the Office of Technology Assessment's (1984) Protecting the Nation's Ground water from Contamination. The third and final part of the report, "State Summaries of Ground-Water Resources," summarizes for each State, the District of Columbia (combined with Maryland), Puerto Rico, the U.S. Virgin Islands, the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, Saipan, Guam, and American Samoa, the distribution, characteristics, and uses of principal aquifers. (The term "State" as used throughout the report is all inclusive of these geographic areas.) Each summary contains maps that show the location of aquifers and major areas of ground-water withdrawals and tables that describe the characteristics of the aquifers and present data on ground-water withdrawals. These descriptions of ground-water resources were prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey offices in each State. Technical terms used in the report are defined in the Glossary. Selected references are given at the end of each article and State summaries to supplement the information provided. Numerous references are made to the National Drinking-Water Regulations; as an aid to the reader, these regulations follow the Glossary. A conversion table of water measurements and a geologic age chart also are provided for the reader's convenience.

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Additional Publication Details

Publication type:
Report
Publication Subtype:
USGS Numbered Series
Title:
National water summary 1984; hydrologic events, selected water-quality trends, and ground-water resources
Series title:
Water Supply Paper
Series number:
2275
Edition:
-
Year Published:
1985
Language:
English
Publisher:
U.S. Government Printing Pffice
Publisher location:
Washington, D.C.
Description:
x, 467 p.
Country:
United States