Information of fuelwood consumption and the local production of wood was collected in two small rural communities in Swaziland. Fuelwood consumption was estimated to be 0.77 t persona??1 yeara??1 in one community (Sigombeni), and 0.63 t persona??1 in the other (Bhekinkhosi). Bhekinkhosi was found to be experiencing a significant fuelwood production/consumption deficit and it expected that Sigombeni will also experience fuelwood deficits by 1990. Individual farm woodlots provided the largest proportion of annual woody biomass production in both areas, accounting for 45% of all profuction in Sigombeni and 73% in Bhekinkhosi. Thirty-seven percent of all farms in Sigombeni and 23% in Bhekinkhosi had woodlots. Virtually all these woodlots consisted primarily of black or green wattle and were established by direct seeding. Two types of community woodlots were identified a?? those established when the area was a private farm and those established with government assistance. The first type of community woodlots was found only in Sigombeni, where it accounted for at least 20% of annual fuelwood production. Community wooslots established with government assistance were an insignificant source of fuelwood in both areas. At an estimated cost of nearly US $500 haa??1, community woodlots planted with government assistance are far more expensive to establish than individual farm woodlots which require no monetary expenditure, assuming local collection of seed. The results indicate a need to increase the local production of fuelwood in rural Swaziland and that encouraging the establishment of onfarm woodlots may be the most effective means of increasing production.