We conducted a literature review of coypu (Myocastor coypus) introduction and eradication efforts worldwide. The coypu (also called nutria) has been introduced from its origins in South America to every continent except Australia and Antarctica. While perceived in some regions as a valuable resource, in most regions the animals are considered a pest species. Coypus have caused damage to water control structures, crops, and marsh systems and are considered a disease host. Eradication efforts have met with varying degrees of success. For those efforts to be successful, the coypu populations must be isolated to prevent reintroduction, harsh winters are necessary to reduce their populations, and intensive trapping efforts must be sustained until the last coypu has been removed.