Use of 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) is limited geographically to the Great Lakes basin where it is the principal agent used in control of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus). It is clear from available data that TFM has effects on the environment, but the effects reported are transient. Individual organisms and aquatic communities return to pretreatment conditions after lampricide treatments have concluded. TFM is not persistent, is detoxified, and presents minimal long-term toxicological risk. TFM is relatively nontoxic to mammals. Treatment levels do not pose a threat to wildlife. However, TFM is an estrogen agonist and additional testing to define the nature and magnitude of this effect will likely be required. Because stream treatments are done on 3 to 5 year cycles, and exposures are limited to approximately 12 h, minimal risk to aquatic organisms is expected.
Additional publication details
Environmental fate and effects of the lampricide TFM: a review