A method using a deuterated surrogate of the avicide 3-chloro-p-toluidine hydrochloride (CPTH) was developed to quantify the CPTH residues in the gastrointestinal (Gl) tract and breast muscle tissues in birds collected in CPTH-baited sunflower and rice fields. This method increased the range of a previous surrogate/gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy method from 0-2 to 0-20mug/g in tissue samples and greatly simplified the extraction procedure. The modified method also sought to increase recoveries over a range of matrix effects introduced by analyzing tissues from birds collected in the field, where the GI tract contents would be affected by varying diet. The new method was used to determine the CPTH concentration In GI tract samples fortified with CPTH-treated rice bait to simulate the consumption of varying amounts of treated bait by two nontargeted bird species, pigeon (Columbia livia) and house sparrow (Passer domesticus). The new method was then used to examine the CPTH concentrations in the gizzard contents of the targeted bird species, red-winged black bird (Agelaius phoeniceus) and brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater) that were collected after feeding at a treated bait site. The method proved sufficiently sensitive to quantify CPTH in the breast muscle tissues and the gizzard contents of red-winged blackbirds and brown-headed cowbirds during an operational baiting program. The levels of CPTH determined for these birds in both tissue samples were determined to be highly correlated. The appearance of CPTH in the breast muscle tissue immediately after feeding was not anticipated. The potential secondary hazard posed by the targeted birds to potential scavengers and predators was also evaluated.
Additional publication details
Improved method for quantifying the avicide 3-chloro-p-toluidine hydrochloride in bird tissues using a deuterated surrogate/GC/MS method