Epizootiology of spirorchid infection in green turtles (Chelonia mydas) in Hawaii

Journal of Parasitology
By: , and 



We describe the epizootiology of spirorchiid trematode infections in Hawaiian green turtles (Chelonia mydas) by quantifying tissue egg burdens in turtles submitted for necropsy and by assessing antibody response to crude adult worm and egg antigens among a variety of age groups. Hapalotrema sp. and Laeredius sp. predominated in turtles infected with spirorchiids. Tissue egg burdens decreased with increasing size and increased with deteriorating body condition of turtles. No relationship was found between tissue egg burdens and sex or fibropapillomatosis status. Tissue egg burdens increased in turtles from southeast to northwest in the main Hawaiian Islands (Hawaii to Kauai). Hatchling and captive-reared turtles had significantly lower levels of antibodies against crude worm and egg antigens. Based on tissue egg burdens and antibody status, we hypothesize that immature turtles become infected with spirorchiids shortly after recruiting into coastal foraging pastures from the pelagic environment, that infection levels decrease with age, and that spirorchiids detrimentally affect the body condition of sea turtles independent of tumor burden. The low intensity of infection in turtles with the endemic trematode Carettacola hawaiiensis suggests either that turtles are less susceptible to infection with this parasite or that the parasite is outcompeted by species of Hapalotrema and Laeredius. Given that the 2 latter species are found in the Pacific and other oceans, they are not likely endemic and were probably introduced into Hawaii through an undetermined route.

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Additional publication details

Publication type Article
Publication Subtype Journal Article
Title Epizootiology of spirorchid infection in green turtles (Chelonia mydas) in Hawaii
Series title Journal of Parasitology
DOI 10.1645/GE-454R.1
Volume 91
Issue 4
Year Published 2005
Language English
Publisher American Society of Parasitologists
Contributing office(s) National Wildlife Health Center
Description 6 p.
First page 871
Last page 876
Country United States
State Hawai'i
Online Only (Y/N) N
Additional Online Files (Y/N) N