Waterbird mortality from botulism type E in Lake Michigan: An update

The Wilson Bulletin
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Three outbreaks of botulism type E occurring in waterbirds on Lake Michigan since autumn 1976 are discussed. Natural ingestion of food containing type E toxin by Ring-billed Gulls (Larus delawarensis) and the presence of type E toxin in blood from moribund gulls were demonstrated. Concurrent presence of type C and type E botulinal toxins was found in a die-off of Common Loons (Gavia immer). In combination with previous reported outbreaks, these incidents suggest that this disease is geographically widespread in Lake Michigan, and that environmental conditions conducive to type E botulinal toxin production and consumption occur in both summer and autumn.

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Publication type Article
Publication Subtype Journal Article
Title Waterbird mortality from botulism type E in Lake Michigan: An update
Series title The Wilson Bulletin
Volume 95
Issue 2
Year Published 1983
Language English
Publisher Wilson Ornithological Society
Contributing office(s) National Wildlife Health Center
Description 7 p.
First page 269
Last page 275
Country United States
Other Geospatial Lake Michigan
Online Only (Y/N) N
Additional Online Files (Y/N) N
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