A method for calculating parameters necessary to maintain stable populations is described and the management implications of the method are discussed. This method depends upon knowledge of the population mortality rate schedule, the age at which the species reaches maturity, and recruitment rates or age ratios in the population. Four approaches are presented which yield information about the status of the population: (1) necessary production for a stable population, (2) allowable mortality for a stable population, (3) annual rate of change in population size, and (4) age ratios in the population which yield a stable condition. General formulas for these relationships, and formulas for several special cases, are presented. Tables are also presented showing production required to maintain a stable population with the simpler (more common) mortality and fecundity schedules.
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Historical overfishing and the recent collapse of coastal ecosystems