Eggs of captive black ducks fed diets containing DDE at 10 and 30 ppm (dry weight) experienced significant shell thinning and an increase in shell cracking when compared to eggs of untreated black ducks. Eggshells from dosed ducks were: 18-24 percent thinner at the equator than shells from undosed ducks; 28-31 percent thinner at the cap; and 29-38 percent thinner at the apex. Shell cracking averaged 21 percent among eggs fram the 30 ppm DDE dosage and 10 percent among eggs from the 10 ppm dosage. Only 2 percent of the eggs from untreated black ducks were cracked. Survival of ducklings fram dosed parents in terms of 'percentage of 21-day ducklings of embryonated eggs' was 40-76 percent lower than survival of ducklings from undosed parents. Average DDE residues (wet weight) in eggs from hens fed 10 and 30 ppm DDE were 46 ppm and 144 ppm, respectively.
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Demographic patterns of postfire regeneration in mediterranean-climate shrublands of California