Rise and fall of endrin usage in Washington state fruit orchards: Effects on wildlife

Environmental Pollution
By: , and 


  • The Publications Warehouse does not have links to digital versions of this publication at this time
  • Download citation as: RIS | Dublin Core


A study of the effects of endrin on wildlife was conducted from 1981 to 1983 in fruit orchards in central Washington State. The single post-harvest application of endrin as a rodenticide resulted in both acute and chronic toxicity to a variety of avian species. Of 194 birds found dead, brains of 125 were analysed; endrin toxicosis accounted for >24% of the total and 37% of those analysed. Most mortality occurred soon after application, but several raptors died during the spring and summer. Most wildlife sampled in the orchard system contained residues of endrin. There was no evidence that endrin depressed reproductive success. Use of endrin abruptly declined during this study and its use is currently limited to emergency situations. Wildlife mortality from endrin also decreased; only six endrin-related mortalities were detected the last year of the study and there have been no reports of die-offs since the study ended.

Additional publication details

Publication type Article
Publication Subtype Journal Article
Title Rise and fall of endrin usage in Washington state fruit orchards: Effects on wildlife
Series title Environmental Pollution
Volume 60
Issue 3-4
Year Published 1989
Language English
Contributing office(s) Forest and Rangeland Ecosystem Science Center
Description p. 331-349
Larger Work Type Article
Larger Work Subtype Journal Article
Larger Work Title Environmental Pollution
First page 331
Last page 349