The lampricide 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) has been used in the United States and Canada for more than 30 years to control populations of sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) in the Great Lakes. There is concern that sea lamprey might become resistant to TFM. Lampricide toxicity tests have been conducted at the Hammond Bay Biological Station, Millersburg, Michigan, since the 1950s and examination of TFM toxicity data for larval lamprey from 1963 to 1987 indicated that sea lamprey have not developed increased resistance to TFM. Maintenance of current control practices are unlikely to cause the development of TFM-resistant sea lamprey strains in the foreseeable future.
Additional publication details
Resistance to 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) in sea lamprey