Capture-recapture methodology has advanced greatly in the last twenty years and is now a major factor driving the continuing evolution of the North American bird banding program. Bird banding studies are becoming more scientific with improved study designs and analytical procedures. Researchers and managers are gaining more reliable knowledge which in turn betters the conservation of migratory birds. The advances in capture-recapture methodology have benefited gamebird studies primarily, but nongame bird studies will benefit similarly as they expand greatly in the next decade. Further theoretical development of capture-recapture methodology should be encouraged, and, to maximize benefits of the methodology, work on practical applications should be increased.