Field evidence for linking Altosid applications with increased amphibian deformities in southern leopard frogs [abstract]



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During the summer of 1997 we repeatedly sprayed Altosid, a formulation of 4% methoprene used for mosquito control, on six constructed macrocosms. Six additional macrocosms were sprayed with Abate4E, containing the organophosphate pesticide temephos, and six were sprayed with water (controls). The wetlands were created on an impermeable foundation for research purposes and averaged 215 m2 in area and 0.5 m deep. Application rates and frequency of Abate4E and Altosid followed label directions and mimicked procedures for mosquito control in National Wildlife Refuges. In early September juvenile frogs and metamorphing tadpoles were collected with dip nets from each pond and examined for deformities. In all, 91 juveniles and metamorph southern leopard frogs (Rana utricularia) were collected from Altosid sprayed wetlands with 14 (15%) demonstrating deformities. Seventyseven juveniles and metamorphs were collected from control wetlands with three (4%) showing deformities. Only six juveniles and metamorphs were collected from Abate4E wetlands and none showed deformities. Deformities included missing or deformed hind limbs (9 of 10 involving only the right hind limb), missing eyes, and abnormal color. The differences in rate of deformities was dependent on treatment (X2=6.44, p< 0.02). The number of leopard frogs caught per unit effort (tadpoles and juveniles) differed among treatments (p=0.032) with Abate4E wetlands producing fewer individuals per capture effort than either Altosid or control wetlands.

Additional publication details

Publication type:
Book chapter
Publication Subtype:
Book Chapter
Field evidence for linking Altosid applications with increased amphibian deformities in southern leopard frogs [abstract]
Year Published:
Milwaukee Public Museum
Publisher location:
Milwaukee, Wisconsin
Contributing office(s):
Patuxent Wildlife Research Center
Larger Work Type:
Larger Work Subtype:
Other Government Series
Larger Work Title:
Midwest Declining Amphibians Conference, a joint meeting of the Great Lakes and Central Division Working Groups of the Declining Amphibian Populations Task Force, March 20 & 21, 1998
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